Molecular pathway of estrogen receptor (ER) action. Typically, estrogen binds to the ligand-binding domain of receptors in the nucleus, which causes a conformational change. Estrogen-responsive elements (ERE) mediate genomic effects. RE, response element; TF, transcription factor; GF, growth factor; GF-R, growth factor receptor; CoA, co-activator; CoR, co-repressor; MAPK, mictogen-activated protein kinase; PI3K, phophoinositide 3-kinase; Src, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase; AP-1, activating protein-1; Sp-1, stimulating protein-1. Adapted from Nie et al.16
High-resolution manometry test swallows and maneuvers. (A) Supine 5 mL liquid; (B) upright 5 mL liquid; (C) viscous (apple sauce); (D) solid (graham cracker); (E) multiple rapid swallow; and (F) rapid drink challenge. Integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) and distal contractile integral (DCI) were 11 mmHg and 1760 mmHg·cm·sec (A), 8 mmHg and 1950 mmHg·cm·sec (B), 7 mmHg and 1600 mmHg·cm·sec (C), 10 mmHg and 1400 mmHg·cm·sec (D), 4 mmHg and 4600 mmHg·cm·sec (E), and 3 mmHg and 0 mmHg·cm·sec (F), respectively. Figure used with permission from the Esophageal Center at Northwestern.
Statistical maps showing voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) differences between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls (HCs; P < 0.05, corrected with Alphasim). IBS patients showed much higher VMHC in superior occipital gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and angular gyrus (red), while lower in supplementary motor area (blue). The color bar indicates the T-value from t test between groups.
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J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021; 27(3): 307~443Total PDF
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